“blind” robots or traditional industrial robots are designed to perform a simple task, whereas vision guided robots with an advanced vision system are capable of performing critical tasks with variation and flexibility. In past few years, several techniques were introduced to automate the procedure of gripping parts of an industrial robot as a substitute to the existing manual part procurement. Due to the rapidly progressing machine vision technology, vision sensors these days are acting as a vital role in the 3D robot positioning systems. An embedded vision sensor robots have a greater consciousness of the scene. It can hold objects, which can be stacked, loosely located or non-fixture. Thus, it empowers the robot to hold/grip objects that are delivered in bins, racks, or on pallets. Regardless of the position, a vision-guided robot (VGR) can pinpoint an object for further processing. This generic solicitation of robotic guidance is smeared in industries such as automotive for the location of sheet metal body parts, power train components, complete car bodies, and other components used during assembly. Other industries such as pharmaceutical, food, daily products, and glass use vision-guided robotics as well. With respect to the industry needs, two significant practices have emerged: 3D and 2D machine vision systems.
The 2D machine vision is a well-applied technique and is implemented since the past few years. 2D vision system trace the object in three degrees of freedom (x, y, and roll angle) provided on a single image. Subsequently, the primary constraint of 2D vision is its incapability to identify part rotation outside of a single plane. However, the ineptness to identify a part rotation outside single plane does not suffice in many applications, for example, the precision fixtures in order to achieve greater versatility. 2D vision robotics are usually applicable in picking objects from conveyor belts. Calibration of such robotic systems requires relatively simple methods.